# Professor Peter Galbraith

Honorary Professor

School of Education

## Researcher biography

Professor Peter Galbraith has an outstanding profile in mathematics education. In research, Peter’s major contribution has been in the field of mathematical modelling and the teaching of modelling to secondary school students. Peter is widely recognised for his international leadership in mathematics education. He has served on the editorial board of *Educational Studies in Mathematics* since 1999.

### Books

Haines, Christopher, Galbraith, Peter, Blum, Werner and Khan, Sanowar

*Mathematical modelling: Education, engineering and economics - ICTMA 12*. Burlington, MA United States: Elsevier Science, 2007. doi:10.1533/9780857099419
Goos, M. E., Lincoln, D., Coco, A., Frid, S., Galbraith, P., Horne, M., Jolly, L., Kostogriz, A., Lowrie, T., Short, P. M. and Gholam, M.

*Home, school and community partnerships to support children's numeracy*. Canberra: Department of Education, Science and Training, 2004.
Galbraith, P. L. and Haines, C.

*Mathematics-Computing Attitude Scales*. London: Department of Continuing Education, City University, 2000.
Fitzpatrick, J. B., Galbraith, P. L. and Henry, B.

*Specialist Mathematics: VCE 2000-2003 Supplement*. Melbourne: Heinemann, 1999.
Galbraith, P. L.

*Forecasting Teacher Supply and Demand: Searching for Shangri-la -- or chasing rainbows?*. Flaxton, Qld.: Post Pressed, 1999.### Book Chapters

Stillman, Gloria , Brown, Jill , Galbraith, Peter and Ng, Kit Ee Dawn (2016). Research into mathematical applications and modelling. In Katie Makar , Shelley Dole, Jana Visnovska, Merrilyn Goos, Anne Bennison and Kym Fry (Ed.),

*Research in mathematics education in Australasia 2012-2015*(pp. 281-304) Singapore, Singapore: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-1419-2_14
Galbraith, Peter (2015). Modelling, education, and the epistemic fallacy. In Gloria Ann Stillman, Werner Blum and Maria Salett Biembengut (Ed.),

*Mathematical modelling in education research and practice: cultural, social and cognitive influences*(pp. 339-349) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18272-8
Galbraith, Peter (2015). 'Noticing' in the practice of modelling as real world problem solving. In Gabriele Kaiser and Hans-Wolfgang Henn (Ed.),

*Werner blum und seine beitrage zum modellieren im mathematikunterricht*(pp. 151-166) Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Spektrum. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-09532-1
Galbraith, Peter (2013). From conference to community: an ICTMA journey - the Ken Houston Inaugural Lecture. In Gloria Ann Stillman, Gabriele Kaiser, Werner Blum and Jill P. Brown (Ed.),

*Teaching mathematical modelling: connecting to research and practice*(pp. 27-45) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6540-5_2
Stillman, Gloria, Brown, Jill P. and Galbraith, Peter (2013). Challenges in modelling challenges: intents and purposes. In Gloria Ann Stillman, Gabriele Kaiser, Werner Blum and Jill P. Brown (Ed.),

*Teaching mathematical modelling: connecting to research and practice*(pp. 217-227) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6540-5_19
Stillman, Gloria Ann, Brown, Jill P., Faragher, Rhonda, Geiger, Vince and Galbraith, Peter (2013). The role of textbooks in developing a socio-critical perspective on mathematical modelling in secondary classrooms. In Gloria Ann Stillman, Gabriele Kaiser, Werner Blum and Jill P. Brown (Ed.),

*Teaching mathematical modelling: connecting to research and practice*(pp. 361-371) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6540-5_30
Bell, Gary, Warwick, Jon and Galbraith, Peter (2012). The need for new higher education management practices and metaphors. In Gary Bell, Jon Warwick and Peter Galbraith (Ed.),

*Higher education management and operational research: demonstrating new practices and metaphors*(pp. 3-28) Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Galbraith, Peter (2012). Making a bed to lie in: system dynamics behind university management stress. In Gary Bell, Jon Warwick and Peter Galbraith (Ed.),

*Higher education management and operational research: demonstrating new practices and metaphors*(pp. 179-207) Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
Stillman, Gloria and Galbraith, Peter (2012). Mathematical modelling: Some issues and reflections. In Werner Blum, Rita Borromeo Ferri and Katja Maab (Ed.),

*Mathematikunterricht im Kintext von Realitat, Kultur und Lehrerprofessionalitat: Festschrift fur Gabriele Kaiser*(pp. 97-105) Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Spektrum. doi:10.1007/978-3-8348-2389-2_11
Galbraith, Peter (2011). Modelling in tertiary education - Overview. In Gabriele Kaiser, Werner Blum, Rita Borromeo Ferri and Gloria Stillman (Ed.),

*Trends in teaching and learning of mathematical modelling: ICTMA 14*(pp. 441-444) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0910-2
Stillman, Gloria and Galbraith, Peter (2011). Evolution of applications and modelling in a senior secondary curriculum. In Gabriele Kaiser, Werner Blum, Rita Borromeo Ferri and Gloria Stillman (Ed.),

*Trends in teaching and learning of mathematical modelling: ICTMA 14*(pp. 689-699) Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0910-2_66
Galbraith, Peter L, Stillman, Gloria and Brown, Jill (2010). Turning ideas into modeling problems. In Richard Lesh, Peter L. Galbraith, Christopher R. Haines and Andrew Hurford (Ed.),

*Modeling Students' Mathematical Modeling Competencies: ICTMA 13*(pp. 133-144) New York, NY, U.S.A.: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0561-1_11
Stillman, Gloria, Brown, Jill and Galbraith, Peter (2010). Identifying challenges within transition phases of mathematical modeling activities at Year 9. In Richard Lesh, Peter L. Galbraith, Christopher R. Haines and Andrew Hurford (Ed.),

*Modeling Students' Mathematical Modeling Competencies: ICTMA 13*(pp. 385-398) New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0561-1_33
Stillman, G., Brown, J. and Galbraith, P. (2008). Research into the teaching and learning of applications and modeling in Australasia. In Forgasz, H., Barkatsas, A., Bishop, A. and Clarke, B. (Ed.),

*Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia 2004-2007*(pp. 141-164) Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Galbraith, P., Stillman, G., Brown, J. and Edwards, I. (2007). Facilitating middle secondary modelling competencies. In C. Haines, P. Galbraith, W. Blum and S. Khan (Ed.),

*Mathematical Modelling: Education, Engineering and Economics*(pp. 130-140) Chichester, United Kingdom: Horwood Publishing.
Galbraith, Peter L. (2007). Beyond the low hanging fruit. In Blum, W., Galbraith, P. L., Henn, H. W. and Niss, M. (Ed.),

*Modelling and Applications in Mathematics Education: The 14th ICMI Study*1 ed. (pp. 79-88) New York: Springer.
Galbraith, P. L. (2005). Mathematical modelling in education: No end to the challenge. In H.W. Henn and G. Kaiser (Ed.),

*Mathematikunterricht im Spannungsfeld von Evolution und Evaluation*(pp. 41-53) Berlin: Verlag Franzbecker.
Goos, M. E. and Galbraith, P. L. (2004). Learning to teach mathematics with technology: A sociocultural analysis. In Joaquim Gimenez, Gail E. FitzSimons and Corinne Hahn (Ed.),

*A Challenge for Mathematics Education: To reconcile commonalities and differences*First ed. (pp. 282-287) Barcelona: Grao.
Galbraith, P. L. and Goos, M. E. (2004). Interpreting commonalities and differences in technology aided learning: A contribution from zone theory. In Joaquim Gimenez, Gail E. FitzSimons and Corinne Hahn (Ed.),

*A Challenge for Mathematics Education: To reconcile commonalities and differences*First ed. (pp. 310-317) Barcelona: Grao.
Galbraith, P. L., Renshaw, P., Goos, M. E. and Geiger, V. S. (2003). Technology-enriched classrooms: Some implications for teaching applications and modelling. In Qi-Xiao Ye, Werner Blum, Ken Houston and Qi-Yuan Jiang (Ed.),

*Mathematical Modelling in Education and Culture: ICTMA 10*First ed. (pp. 111-125) Chichester England: Horwood Publishing.
Stillman, G. and Galbraith, P. L. (2003). Towards constructing a measure of the complexity of application tasks. In Susan J. Lamon, Willard A. Parker and Ken Houston (Ed.),

*Mathematical Modelling: A Way of Life ICTMA 11*(pp. 179-188) Chichester England: Horwood Publishing.
Dunne, T. and Galbraith, P. L. (2003). Mathematical modelling as pedagogy: Impact of an immersion programme. In Qi-Xiao Ye, Werner Blum, Ken Houston and Qi-Yuan Jiang (Ed.),

*Mathematical Modelling in Education and Culture: ICTMA 10*First ed. (pp. 16-30) Chichester England: Horwood Publishing.
Galbraith, P. L. (2003). Defending the faith: Modelling to increase the accountability of organisational leadership. In Susan J. Lamon, Willard A. Parker and Ken Houston (Ed.),

*Mathematical Modelling: A Way of Life ICTMA 11*(pp. 143-151) Chichester England: Horwood Publishing.
Galbraith, P. L. and Haines, C. (2001). Conceptual and procedural demands embedded in modelling tasks. In J. F. Matos, W. Blum, K. Houston and S. P. Carreira (Ed.),

*Modelling and Mathematics Education: ICTMA 9: Applications in Science and Technology*(pp. 342-351) Chicester, UK: Horwood.
Galbraith, P.L. and Stillman, G. (2001). Assumptions and context: Pursuing their role in modelling activity. In J.F. Matos, W. Blum, K. Houston and S.P. Carreira (Ed.),

*Modelling and Mathematics Education: ICTMA 9: Applications in Science and Technology*(pp. 300-310) Chicester, UK: Horwood.
Goos, M., Galbraith, P. L. and Renshaw, P. (1999). Establishing a community of practice in a secondary mathematics classroom. In Leone Burton (Ed.),

*Learning mathematics: from hierarchies to networks*(pp. 36-61) London: Falmer Press.### Journal Articles

Galbraith, Peter (2013) Out of the frying pan: into the fire of post-global financial crisis (GFC) university management.

*Higher Education Policy*,*26*4: 523-550. doi:10.1057/hep.2013.12
Galbraith, Peter (2012) Scoring points: goals for real world problem solving.

*Australian Senior Mathematics Journal*,*26*2: 51-62.
Galbraith, Peter (2012) Models of modelling: genres, purposes or perspectives.

*Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Application*,*1*5: 3-16.
Galbraith, Peter and Lockwood, Terry (2010) Things may not always be as they seem: The set shot in AFL football.

*Australian Senior Mathematics Journal*,*24*2: 29-42.
Galbraith, Peter (2010) System dynamics: A lens and scalpel for organisational decision making.

*OR Insight*,*23*2: 96-123. doi:10.1057/ori.2010.3
Stillman, Gloria, Brown, Jill and Galbraith, Peter (2010) Researching applications and mathematical modelling in mathematics learning and teaching.

*Mathematics Education Research Journal*,*22*2: 1-6. doi:10.1007/BF03217561
Galbraith, P. L. (2004) Organisational leadership and chaos theory: Let's be careful.

*Journal of Educational Administration*,*42*1: 9-28.
Galbraith, P. L. (2003) A most unlikely hyperbola.

*Australian Senior Mathematics Journal*,*17*1: 62-64.
Cretchley, P. and Galbraith, P. L. (2003) Mathematics, computers, and umbilical cords.

*New Zealand Journal of Mathematics*,*32*Supplementary: 37-45.
Goos, Merrilyn, Galbraith, Peter, Renshaw, Peter and Geiger, Vince (2003) Perspectives on technology mediated learning in secondary school mathematics classrooms.

*Journal of Mathematical Behavior*,*22*1: 73-89. doi:10.1016/S0732-3123(03)00005-1
Goos, Merrilyn, Galbraith, Peter and Renshaw, Peter D (2002) Socially mediated metacognition: Creating collaborative zones of proximal development in small group problem solving.

*Educational Studies in Mathematics*,*49*2: 193-223. doi:10.1023/A:1016209010120
Galbraith, P. L. (2001) Systems thinking: A lens and scalpel for organizational learning.

*ERIC Document Reproduction Service*,*ED453186*1-15.
Galbraith, P.L. and Haines, C. (2001) The keyskills agenda: Exploring implications for mathematics.

*International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology*,*32*3: 337-354.
Goos, M. E., Galbraith, P. L., Renshaw, P. and Geiger, V. (2000) Reshaping teacher and student roles in technology-enriched classrooms.

*Mathematics Education Research Journal*,*12*3: 303-320. doi:10.1007/BF03217091
Burghes, D. and Galbraith, P. L. (2000) Teaching mathematics through national lotteries.

*International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning*,*February 2*1-5.
Goos, Merrilyn, Galbraith, Peter and Renshaw, Peter (2000) A money problem: A source of insight into problem solving action.

*International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning*,*April 13*1-21.
Galbraith, P. L. and Haines, C. (2000) Conceptual mis(understandings) of beginning undergraduates.

*International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology*,*31*5: 651-678.
Pemberton, M. R. and Galbraith, P. L. (2000) Student knowledge and teacher perceptions of secondary mathematics graduates.

*Australian Senior Mathematics Journal*,*14*2: 4-14.
Galbraith, P. L. (2000) Learning organisations: Sifting the wheat from the chaff.

*Perspectives on Educational Leadership*,*10*5: 1-2.
Galbraith, P. L. (1999) Systems thinking: A missing component in higher educational planning?.

*Higher Education Policy*,*12*2: 141-157. doi:10.1016/S0952-8733(99)00004-5
Goos, Merrilyn, Renshaw, Peter and Galbraith, Peter (1998) 'We're supposed to be discussing stuff!': Processes of resistance and inclusion in secondary mathematics classrooms..

*Australian Senior Mathematics Journal*,*12*2: 20-31.### Conference Papers

Galbraith, Peter (2013). Students and real world applications: still a challenging mix. In: Vicki Steinle, Lynda Ball and Caroline Bardini, MERGA36: 2013. Mathematics Education: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

*MERGA 36: 36th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia*, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, (314-321). 7-11 July, 2013.
Galbraith, Peter (2011). Models of modelling: Is there a first among equals?. In: Julie Clark, Barry Kissane, Judith Mousley, Toby Spencer and Steve Thornton, Proceedings of the AAMT-MERGA Conference 2011.

*Mathematics: Traditions and [New] Practices AAMT-MERGA Conference 2011*, Alice Springs, Australia, (279-287). 3-7 July 2011.
Galbraith, Peter (2011). Modelling as real world problem solving: Translating rhetoric into action. In: Julie Clark, Barry Kissane, Judith Mousley, Toby Spencer and Steve Thornton, Proceedings of the AAMT-MERGA Conference 2011.

*Mathematics: Traditions and [New] Practices: AAMT-MERGA Conference 2011*, Alice Springs, NT, Australia, (931-938). 3 - 7 July 2011.
Stillman, G. and Galbraith, P. (2009). Softly, softly: Curriculum change in applications and modelling in the senior secondary curriculum in Queensland. In: R. Hunter, B. Bicknell and T. Burgess, MERGA 32: Crossing Divides.

*32nd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia*, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand, (515-522). 5-9 July 2009.
Galbraith, P. (2008). Applications and modeling in mathematics education: Progress to celebrate - so much more to do. In: Niss, M., Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME-10).

*10th International Congress on Mathematical Education*, Roskilde University, Denmark, (1-17). 4-11 July 2004.
Galbraith, P. (2008). Some thoughts around disciplinary mathematics for teaching. In: ICMI, Proceedings of the Symposium on the Occasion of the 100th Anniversary of ICMI.

*ICMI 2008*, Rome, Italy, (1-5). 5-8 March 2008.
Stillman, G., Galbraith, P., Brown, J. and Edwards, I. (2007). A framework for success in implementing mathematical modelling in the secondary classroom. In: Watson, J. and Beswick, K., Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australia.

*Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice*, Wrest Point Hotel Casino, Hobart, TAS, (688-697). 2-6 July 2007.
Galbraith, Peter (2007). Dreaming a ‘possible dream’: More windmills to conquer. In: C. Haines, P. Galbrait, W. Blum and S. Kha, 12th International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling and Applications (ICTMA 12).

*12th International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling and Applications (ICTMA 12)*, City University, London, UK, (44-62). 10-14 July 2005.
Galbraith, P. L. (2005). Mathematics for teaching: Some issues, some reflections. In: M. Bulmer, H. MacGillivray and C. Varsavsky, Proceedings of Kingfisher Delta '05.

*5th Southern Hemisphere Conference on Undergraduate Mathematics and Statistics Teaching and Learning: Kingfisher Delta '05*, Fraser Island, QLD, Australia, (7-21). 22-26 November 2005.
Galbraith, P. L. (2005). Applications and mathematical modeling: Meeting the challenge. In: S. Koen, A. Maclean and K. Howell, Towards a Numerate and Mathematically Literate Society.

*Eleventh National Congress of the Association for Mathematics Education of South Africa*, South Africa, (10-13). 27-30 June 2005.
Geiger, V., Galbraith, P. L., Goos, M. E. and Renshaw, P. (2003). Choosing and using technology for secondary mathematical modelling tasks: Choosing the right peg for the right hole. In: Qi-Xiao Ye, Werner Blum, Ken Houston and Qi-Yuan Jiang, Mathematical Modelling in Education and Culture: ICTMA 10.

*ICTMA 10*, Beijing, (126-140). 29 July - 2 August 2001.
Galbraith, P. L. and Goos, M. E. (2003). From description to analysis in technology aided teaching and learning: A contribution from Zone Theory. In: L. Bragg, C. Campbell, G. Herbert and J. Mousley, Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

*26th Annual Conf Mathematics Educat Res Group Australasia*, Deakin University, Geelong, (364-371). 6-10 July, 2003.
Geiger, V., Galbraith, P., Goos, M. and Renshaw, P. (2002). Matching the hatch: Students' choices and preferences in relation to handheld technologies and learning mathematics. In: B. Barton, K.C. Irwin, M. Pfannkuch and M.O.J. Thomas, Mathematics Education in the South Pacific.

*25th Annual Conference of MERGA*, Auckland, (293-300). 7-10 July 2002.
Galbraith, P. and Pemberton, M. (2002). Convergence or divergence? Students, maple, and mathematics learning. In: B. Barton, K.C. Irwin, M. Pfannkuch and M.O.J. Thomas, Mathematics Education in the South Pacific.

*25th Annual Conference of MERGA*, Auckland, (285-292). 7-10 July 2002.
Galbraith, P. (2002). 'Life wasn't meant to be easy': Separating wheat from chaff in technology aided learning. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics.

*2nd International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics*, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, (). 1-6 July 2002.
Cretchley, P. and Galbraith, P. (2002). Mathematics or computers? Confidence or motivation? How do these relate to achievement?. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics.

*2nd International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics*, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, (). 1-6 July 2002.
Galbraith, P. (2002). Metaphor or model? Muddying the terrain of learning organisations. In: P. Ledington and J. Ledington, ANZ Systems 2002 -- Managing Complex Systems.

*8th Australian and New Zealand Systems Conference*, Mooloolaba, Qld, (159-172). 10-12 December 2002.
Galbraith, P. and Goos, M. (2002). Interpreting commonalities and differences in technology aided learning: A contribution from zone theory. In: A Challenge for Mathematics Education: To Reconcile Commonalities and Differences.

*54th Conference of the C.I.E.A.E.M.*, Catalonia, Spain, (115-117). 13-19 July 2002.
Goos, M. and Galbraith, P. (2002). Learning to teach mathematics with technology: A sociocultural analysis. In: J. Gimenez, G. E. FitzSimons and C. Hahn, A Challenge for Mathematics Education: To Reconcile Commonalities and Differences.

*54th Conference of the C.I.E.A.E.M.*, Catalonia, Spain, (104-106). 13-19 July 2002.
Goos, M. E., Galbraith, P. L., Renshaw, P. and Geiger, V. (2001). Teaching applications in technology enriched mathematics classrooms. In: 10th International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling and Applications.

*ICTMA 10*, Beijing, (25-25). 29 July - 2 August 2001.
Galbraith, P. L. (2001). Research-informed changes: Can research really reflect and hence inform the reality of the classroom?. In: E. Efhymiades, Mathematics: What Changes?.

*AAMT's Virtual Conference 2001*, virtual conference, (CD). virtual conference.
Galbraith, P. L. and Pemberton, M. R. (2001). Digging beneath the surface: When manipulators, mathematics, and students mix. In: ERIC Document Reproduction Service.

*Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association*, Seattle, (). 10-14 April 2001.
Dunne, T. and Galbraith, P. L. (2001). Mathematical modelling as pedagogy: Impact of an immersion program. In: 10th International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling and Applications.

*ICTMA 10*, Beijing, (11-11). 29 July - 2 August 2001.
Galbraith, P.L., Pemberton, M. R. and Cretchley, P. (2001). Computers, mathematics, and undergraduates: What is going on?. In: J. Bobis, B. Perry and M. Mitchelmore, Numeracy and Beyond.

*24th Annual Conference MERGA*, Sydney, (233-240). 30 June - 4 July 2001.
Galbraith, P.L., Goos, M. E., Renshaw, P. and Geiger, V. (2001). Integrating technology in mathematics learning: What some students say. In: J. Bobis, B. Perry and M. Mitchelmore, Numeracy and Beyond.

*24th Annual Conference MERGA*, Sydney, (225-232). 30 June - 4 July 2001.
Goos, M. E., Galbraith, P.L., Renshaw, P. and Geiger, V. (2001). Promoting collaborative inquiry in technology enriched mathematics classrooms. In: What We Know and How We Know It.

*Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, What We Know and How We Know It*, Seattle, (). 10-14 April 2001.
Goos, M. E., Galbraith, P. L., Renshaw, P. and Geiger, V. (2000). Classroom voices: Technology enriched interactions in a community of mathematical practice. In: The Use of Technology in Mathematics Education.

*ICME 9*, Tokyo, (). 31 July - 6 August 2000.
Goos, M. E., Galbraith, P. L. and Renshaw, P. (2000). The thinking-talking-technology connection. In: 9th International Congress on Mathematical Education.

*ICME 9*, Tokyo, (244). 31 July - 6 August 2000.
Galbraith, P. L. and Pemberton, M. R. (2000). Manipulator or magician: Is there a free lunch?. In: J. Bana and A. Chapman, Mathematics Education Beyond 2000.

*MERGA 23*, Fremantle, (267-274). 5-9 July 2000.
Galbraith, P. L., Goos, M. E., Renshaw, P. and Geiger, V. (2000). Emergent properties of teaching-learning in technology-enriched classrooms. In: J. Bana and A. Chapman, Mathematics Education Beyond 2000.

*MERGA 23*, Fremantle, (690-690). 5-9 July 2000.
Galbraith, P. L. and Haines, C. (2000). Mathematics-computing attitude scales with a purpose. In: 9th International Congress on Mathematical Education.

*ICME 9*, Tokyo, (157). 31 July - 6 August 2000.
Galbraith, P. L. and Haines, C. (2000). Prioritising mathematical skills for an educated workforce. In: A. Ahmed, H. Williams and J.M. Kraemer, Cultural Diversity in Mathematics (Education): CIEAEM 51.

*CIEAEM 51*, Chichester, UK, (103-112). July 1999.
Galbraith, P. L. (2000). Calculating the future: Threats and opportunities. In: W. Morony and M. Stephens, Students, Mathematics and Graphics Calculators Into the New Millennium.

*Students, Mathematics and Graphics Calculators*, Sydney, (152-157). 30-31 March 2000.
Galbraith, P. L. (2000). Swings and roundabouts: Riding the punches of university management dilemmas. In: G. Altmann, J. Lamp, P.E.D. Love, P. Mandal, R. Smith and M. Warren, Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management.

*International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management*, Deakin University, (192-197). 8-10 November 2000.
Galbraith, P. L., Renshaw, P., Goos, M. and Geiger, V. (1999). Technology, mathematics, and people: Interactions in a community of practice. In: J. M. Truran and K. M. Truran, Making the Difference: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Conference of The Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

*MERGA 22*, Adelaide, (223-230). 4-7 July 1999.
Galbraith, P. L., Haines, C. and Pemberton, M. R. (1999). A tale of two cities: When mathematics, computers, and students meet. In: J. M. Truran and K. M. Truran, Making the Difference: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Conference of The Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia.

*MERGA 22*, Adelaide, (215-222). 4-7 July 1999.
Galbraith, P. L. (1999). Important issues in applications and modelling. In: AAMT Virtual Conference 99 Proceedings (CD-ROM).

*AAMT Virtual Conference 1999*, Web-based, (). 20 Aug - 24 Sept 1999.
Galbraith, P. L. and Stillman, G. (1999). Assumptions and context: Exploring their contribution to modelling performance. In: ICTMA 9.

*9th International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling and Applications*, Lisbon, (22). 1-5 Aug 1999.
Galbraith, P. L. (1999). Universities as learning organisations--or not!. In: R. Y. Cavana, J. A. M. Vennix, E. A. J. A. Rouwette, M. Stevenson-Wright and J. Candlish, Systems Thinking for the Next Millennium.

*17th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society*, Wellington, New Zealand, (115). 20-23 July, 1999.
Galbraith, P. L. and Haines, C. (1999). Conceptual and procedural demands embedded in modelling tasks. In: ICTMA 9.

*9th International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematical Modelling and Applications*, Lisbon, (19). 1-5 Aug 1999.
Galbraith, P. L., Haines, C. and Leigh, C. (1999). Prioritising mathematical skill for an educated workforce. In: Cultural Diversity in Mathematics (Education).

*CIEAEM 51*, Chichester, UK, (49-50). 21-26 July 1999.
Galbraith, P. L. (1999). Futures studies: How does maths fit in?. In: Mathematics Across the Ages.

*36th Annual Conference of The Mathematical Association of Victoria*, Melbourne, (9). 2-3 Dec 1999.